When we think of the oceans, we usually have an image of a pleasant sunset or colorful tropical fish. However, according to studies by the International Programme for State of the Ocean (IPSO), the seas are going through tumultuous and damaging changes. The severity of the situation is multiplied by the multi-factored threats which are happening at the same time: heating by climate change, acidification by absorbing CO2, over fishing, pollution from fertilizer run-off and other sources. The report warns that these factors may be precipitating an extinction. Research has shown that past extinctions have all involved warming seas, acidification and low oxygen levels.